Book Giveaway Part 3 #bookofisabel

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I realized that I will end up giving away more books than I thought and I’m okay with that. This past weekend I giveaway two books at the Lit Crawl I participated in. It was a short reading for me but I had a lot of fun. It wasn’t just me who read their work so I felt even better to be a part of a larger collective.

In terms of things I’m involved with and doing… I’m not done this month. I have a reading on October 15th in Washington Heights and I’m also going to be in the LETRAS – Latino Self Published Book Fair on October 23rd at the Bronx Museum of the Arts. I will talk about these on a later post. To end the month, I will be going to Georgia to visit family and speak at a book club.

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I just plan to be in more places as I continue this thing called writing. When I started this, I found myself being frightened by the readings and the public appearances. But, as I’ve come to recently learn, if there’s fear in a opportunity then I must take it. It means that I might afraid of potential success. As we know, fear is paralyzing and I cannot have anything stop me.

Of course during my adventures, I take pictures and post on them on Instagram. I tend to get a warm reception on this platform so I will I will give my Instagram audience a chance at a free copy of The Book of Isabel.

The rules are pretty much the same as the other two. If you follow me on Instagram comment on the photo accompanying this announcement (on Instagram) and give me the name of good book you’ve read written by a Latinx author. I will randomly choose a winner. This giveaway ends on Friday, 10/7.

Let’s Go Mets!

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First Book giveaway… #bookofisabel

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It’s my fault, really.

I’ve been too busy with work to really put the time and energy to get more blog posts out. The good thing is that this is always in the back of my head so that when I do want to write something down, I know exactly what to say.

So… I’m giving away some books this month (September 15 – October 15th). I mentioned this on Twitter last week and now I’m doing some follow up. I’ll be giving away 4 books during Latinx Heritage Month. I have been very careful on how I market The Book of Isabel because I’ve wanted to do things differently from Hanging Upside Down and the results are interesting to say the least.

Anyway, the first book giveaway starts… well, right now.

This giveaway is for the followers of this blog. Ya’ll have been so amazing and I want to thank you. So yes, you must be a follower for one… and two… you must comment on this post and tell me what’s the best book you’ve read this year. I will end this giveaway on Friday, September 23 at 9pm EST.

I will announce the winner and then… announce the terms of the next giveaway!

 

Latino Heritage Month: A History of Citizenship & Education

la-times_february-19-1946_400x450This may be the first time in about 10 years that I am not directly involved with planning some type of Latino Heritage Month activity on a campus I am employed in. While that may sound like a tragedy in some way given my past involvement, It really isn’t. Perhaps because I reside in New York City, where there are literally millions of Latinos, maybe I don’t have that same sense of urgency as I did as Syracuse. I noticed that Barnard College and Columbia University already has established programming for students to take part and that is what makes me smile.

This is not say that the work is done and I am over it but I think that I need to have a different, more personal, approach to Latino Heritage Month. Many times we call for action without reflection. We get angry over things that occur and we tweet about it and post Facebook statuses but then everything sorta dies down after a few days. I do contemplate if that is because we never really take to reflect on what is really happening in the world. We become more reactionary to much of what happens.

Those reactions distracts us from doing what is going on. So I would like to offer a history lesson on how Latinos had to fight for the education we enjoy today. This is part of a graduate paper I wrote last year. Warning – this is lengthy but I do think it’s worth it:

With California and Texas becoming states in the mid-1800s, there was a need for the United States to determine what it was going to do with the Mexican and Native American populations that it acquired with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Mexican population quickly became racialized by the standard of the United States, which meant that light skinned Mexicans were considered Caucasian and darker individuals (such as Native American and Afro-Mexicans) were considered Black.

This is important to recognize because this is where many Mexicans drew the line in the fight for equal opportunity. They felt that they did not fall within the racialized context of black and white. In general, most of the separation from the majority was cultural like many of the other immigrants that came before them. Immigrants from Europe that came to the U.S. earlier the century (Germans, Irish, and Italians) went through a similar plight of dealing with culture and language.  However, European Immigrants never had to fight that hard to become assimilated into the American culture and as a result lost many customs and cultural traditions that Latinos fight hard to maintain.

After the Spanish American War in 1898 resulted in the Treaty of Paris (in which Puerto Rico was acquired along with Guam and the Philippines), the United States maintained the attitude that the Latino population needed to become more Americanized by getting a better education and thus learning English. Mexicans in the west were struggling with equal rights in terms of land ownership, while Puerto Ricans and Cubans were dealing with Americanization in the north east. American politicians felt that Puerto Rico, in particular, would benefit from a better education as long as they learned English first. Cuba also fell within the protection of the United States before Fidel Castro assumed power.

The Mexican Revolutionary War from 1910 to 1920 forced many Mexicans to cross the border into the United States to escape the fighting and the bloodshed. This meant a cheaper workforce with the influx of people, but it also meant an educational challenge for school districts. Many districts in California created spaces in schools just to hold separate Mexican classes to address the needs of this new population. The focus was to Americanize Mexican children while teaching them vocational skills needed to make them a part of the workforce. Despite initial protest from parents, the Santa Ana Board of Education was the first to open a Mexican only school in 1919. The rationale being that this separate facility was in the best interest of the children.

In 1917, the Jones Act was passed that allowed Puerto Ricans to be American Citizens, which led to a large influx of Puerto Ricans into the United States. This declaration of citizenship came after years of political struggle over what exactly Puerto Rico was. While statehood was not granted, Puerto Ricans could still enjoy the status of being an American Citizen even though they are often not treated as such. Here is where many of the political issues for Puerto Ricans and Mexicans differ. Mexicans were fighting hard to cross the boarders to be naturalized to escape a war of revolution while Puerto Ricans slowly losing their ability to self-govern.

When thinking about segregation, cases like Brown v. Board of Education in Topeka Kansas in 1954 were critical. However, in 1946 Mendez v. Westminster in California is a landmark court case that changed the landscape for Latinos in Education and set the stage for the latter court case. The most import part of the fight for social inclusion is that most of the struggles for equality in school are mostly invisible. African Americans struggles for desegregation are well documented and well discussed in the history of the United States; however, Mexican Americans have been fighting the legality of segregation since the 1930s. History largely acknowledges the plight of African Americans making it difficult to really see and understand the roles that Latinos, particularly Mexicans played during the segregation era.

Cases like the Independent School District v. Salvatierra in Texas (1930) showed that segregation of Mexicans was indeed happening because of race. However, school districts could get away with this if the basis of the separation was based on lack of English language proficiency. The issue was that the Texas State constitution, which was ratified in 1876, stated that segregation of Whites and colored children was allowed. However, the term “colored” was only meant for “Negros.” Since Mexicans are not mentioned in the Constitution, the court ruled that Mexicans were considered white and thus segregation against them was illegal. The significance of this case was that the lawyers who defended Salvatierra were from the newly established League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). This case provided them with crucial experience they would need in the upcoming years.

In 1931, the Alvarez v. Lemon Grove School District was held in court in California. This can be argued as being the first real victory against segregation. The Lemon Grove District sought to build a separate school for Mexicans due to overcrowding. The District never informed the parents of this, thus never gained support from the Mexican community. In turn the parents protested and refused to have their children attend this new school that was called La Caballeriza (the stable) by much of the community. These parents wanted to maintain their right to send their children to same schools that Whites sent their children to.

The judge ruled in favor of Alvarez on the basis that the separate school for Mexican children would not be conducive to their Americanization. It was believed that this new school would severely retard their comprehension of the English Language because they would have no one to speak proper English to. He also believed that allowing Spanish speaking children to learn English and mingle with other English speaking students would allow them the best way to be Americanized. In addition, it was also found that California law had no such provisions that allowed for the district to make such a decision.

For years, California was deeply rooted in the idea of segregation. As the Mexican population increased, so was the increased demand of Anglos to create a residential and educational segregation. In 1927 the California Attorney General pushed for Mexicans to be considered as Native Americans whereby placing them under the mandate of de jure segregation. The notion that Mexicans were “colored” and should not have the same equalities as White people seemed to go against the ruling cited in Lemon Grove Case. However, when California Legislature passed a law to segregate Mexicans because they were considered Native Americans, the 1935 School code did not specifically mention them by name:

The governing board of the School district shall have all power to establish separate schools for Indian [sic] children, excepting children who are the wards of the U.S. government and the children of all other Indians who are the descendants of the original American Indians of the U.S, and for the children of Chinese, Japanese, or Mongolian parentage.

Because Mexicans were not mentioned specially, as was the case with other races, school districts in California found it difficult to legally segregate them. Mexicans did not consider themselves Native American, which created a loophole within the legislation.

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A picture of the Zoot Suit Riots

Despite the inequities within the school system and the labor market, World War II was a time in which many Latinos went overseas. It was estimated that over 65,000 Puerto Ricans served in a segregated military. Due to their citizenship, Puerto Rican men were required to register and serve.  Most of them served from the 65th Infantry Regiment. World War II gave many Mexicans pride in their US citizenship. The general number of Mexican Americans that served is unknown because many were counted as White soldiers. However, despite their participation in the war, Mexicans were constantly being linked to issues of crime as much as African Americans were. The zoot suit riots in 1943, where American sailors would drive the streets of Los Angeles looking to strip Mexican youth of their clothing, marked a time of racial tension in California. The battle in the courtroom for equality became even more crucial as racial tensions were mounting outside the classroom.

In 1943, the parents of Silvia Mendez tried to enroll her into Westminster Elementary School in Santa Ana, California, where she was denied enrollment based on her skin color and Spanish surname.  It was lawful at the time for California school districts to segregate all students of color and thus deny them access into schools that were considered all white.  This prompted her father, Gonzalo, to join with other families and file a class action lawsuit against the Orange County School District. LULA took the lead on the case and represented five fathers: Thomas Estrada, Chapo Guzman, Mayo Zambada, Rosame Elcacho, and Gonzalo Mendez.

The basis of the argument was that the school district had violated the 14th Amendment. This is a similar argument made in Brown v. Board of Education that took place seven years later by Thurgood Marshall on behalf of the NAACP.  The Equal Protection Clause within the 14th Amendment states:

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;

What led Judge Paul J. McCormick’s ruling in favor of Mendez was not just the violation of the 14th Amendment, but the ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that guaranteed Mexicans equal rights in the United States. However, this case would be fought again in the appellate court, where the connection of the two historic court cases is made.

For years, the NAACP has been trying to win the battle of segregation in schools using the 14th Amendment as reason for the law’s is unconstitutionality. Until the Mendez v. Westminster, the standard for segregation in schools was the Plessy v. Ferguson case in 1896 that upheld that States had the right to separate, provided that they granted equal facilities. The Mendez ruling was the first successful ruling toward segregation in terms of skin color.  For the most part, segregation for Mexicans was based on cultural reasons. These segregation cases really did not change much for African Americans because there was always a loophole regarding that citizenry and language issues of Mexicans in particular.

When it came time to fight the case in the appellate courts, LULAC and the NAACP (along with American Civil Liberties Union, American Jewish Congress, and Japanese American Citizens League) came together to successfully argue the case.  Ninth Circuit Judge, Justice Albert Lee Stephens, upheld the ruling April 14, 1947.  The court stated:

By enforcing the segregation of school children of Mexican Decent against their will and contrary to the laws of California, the respondents have violated the federal law as provided in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution by depriving them the equal protections of the laws.

Thurgood Marshall collaborated with David Marcus, who was representing LULAC on this appeal case that provided some of the framework that Marshall would use in the Brown case in 1954.

Two months after the ruling was passed down, Governor Earl Warren signed a bill repealing segregation in California schools, which lead to the closing of Mexican schools across the State.  This marked a second connection to the Brown case. In 1953, President Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren as Chief Justice to the Supreme Court. It was Chief Justice Warren that wrote the final decision in the Brown case that ended segregation in schools across the United States.

What made this ruling so important was that it broke away from the Plessy ruling of the “separate but equal “doctrine.  While African Americans had continued to suffer under segregation in terms of physical and social equality, Mexican Americans were able to fight successfully against the issues because they were routinely seen as more than Black. However, despite the positive ruling from the Mendez case that was supposed to end de jure segregation, evidence indicated that not only did segregation not end, but that it worsened.

In 1947 Minerva Delgado was denied admission to a school in Texas on the sole basis that she was Mexican. Her grandfather sued the Bastrop Independent School District that was later filed as a class action suit on behalf of all Mexican children within the school district. Delgado v. Bastrop was another pre-Brown case that demonstrated that segregation was more customary than law. Many people in Texas had hope that this case would do for Texas what Mendez did for California.

While the judge ruled in favor of the plaintiff in 1948, segregation of first graders was allowed if there was a lack of proficiency in English. This lack of proficiency made segregation justifiable in terms of separate classes, or maybe even separate schooling altogether.

Despite the various victories against segregation in various school districts in California and Texas, Mexicans were still dealing with isolation within segregated schools well into the 1950s. It is well documented that many of these school districts did not adhere to many of the court rulings until the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954. However, desegregation was becoming law across the country; segregation based on language became more of the practiced custom.

Sources:

  1. Donato, Rubén. The other struggle for equal schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights era. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. Print.
  2. MacDonald, Victoria. Latino education in the United States: a narrated history from 1513-2000. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print.
  3. Navarro, Sharon Ann, and Armando Xavier Mejia. Latino Americans and political participation: a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004. Print.
  4. Pedraza, Pedro, and Melissa Rivera. Latino education: an agenda for community action research. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. Print.
  5. Santiago, Isaura. “Aspira v. Board of Education Revisited.” American Journal of Education 95.1 (1986): 149-199. Print.
  6. Valencia, Richard R.. Chicano school failure and success: past, present, and future. 2nd ed. London: Routledge/Falmer, 2002. Print.

LBC 2012 Day 6 – Immigration: For or Against?

American Progress by John Gast
is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west.

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

This entire immigration debate makes me laugh. Throughout the course of American History, the US has had no problem declaring how much of a melting pot this nation is. You can go to Ellis Island and see the list of names of all the people who crossed our boarders looking for a better life. One can also go back into history and realize that our entire country is basically built on the fact that people from other nations have to come to this land to claim a place to call home.

From the moment European settlers came to this land and decimated the original people who lived here, there has been this debate about people who are crossing boarders. Yet, it has been Americans who have crossed boarders and called it the Western Expansion or the Manifest Destiny. This was our country’s view of expanding or realm of freedom by driving out the Native Americans and pushing Mexicans south.

Our views of immigration become very convoluted with modern rhetoric about people who come to this country and take American Jobs. Most of time, the media puts a face behind these “immigrants” and those just happen to belong to Latinos (Mexicans to be more specific). Yet, there is very little attention paid to other types of immigrants that may be lighter in skin tone as if most immigrants who are European know exactly what they are doing.

The problem with the belief of jobs being taken is the simple fact that most of the jobs that these undocumented immigrants are mostly working are jobs that many Americans do not want anyway. Fruit Picking? House Keeping? Sure, the argument is that undocumented workers are willing to work for less thus pushing down the wages and making that job unattractive to the US Worker, but isn’t that the fault of the people who are signing the checks? They are the ones who want to make more profit. And let’s just say that these places do stop hiring these immigrants and just hire Americans for higher wages, the price of that product or service increases and then we will really complain.

My real issue with this whole idea of just pushing everyone out comes down to the issue of judgement. Many people assume that all undocumented immigrants are in this country for a negative reason. Not everyone has the same story. This need to lump everyone into one thing becomes very discriminatory and of course, in America, that is not surprising.

I am for immigration because this country was founded by immigrants. But, when history is written in a certain way that celebrates people like Columbus for “discovering” a country that was already populated then it is no surprise that the fight for immigration becomes a bloody one.

LBC 2012 Day 5 – Romney or Obama?

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

This is a scary time for the United States of America. There is such a political divide that things are getting messier as we get closer to November. It is very apparent that we are in a pivotal point, like 4 years ago, as to what direction we will be going in. We have our current President that has put policies in place that his current opponent has vowed to repeal when he gets into office.

This has alway been an easy choice for me. There is no way I will ever vote for Mitt Romney. I am pretty much against anything he proposes or talks about. Here is a man who allowed universal healthcare to happen in Massachusetts (he was governor at the time) and now opposes it. Romney made himself look foolish at the Olympics with his idiotic comments and he selected a running-mate that has no foreign policy experience.

Let me also just state that Mitt believes that 47% of the country do not pay taxes. According to him, “these” people are always looking for a government handout (i.e. welfare, unemployment). But, when you examine that statement, take into consideration that as the CEO of Bane Capital, thousands of people were laid off. Wouldn’t that mean that some of that 47% were given those handouts because of him?

When I think about Barak Obama, I think about a man who has been the calming influence after the Bush years. I also see a president that has tried to do as best he could while a Republican Congress has tried to hand cuff him at every turn. I do love the fact that he was the first US President to get Universal Healthcare passed. While he has done other things like expanding Medicare, supporting gay marriage, and expanding Pell Grants, his biggest accomplishment is Universal Health Care. I am not a person who needs government assisted Health Care, but I know that there were millions of people who were uncovered before this bill was signed.

Yet, there are many Black and Latino people who felt that Obama could do more and to those people I will say that this political system is not designed for all of us to everything we want. I believe that 8 years will be better that 4.

For those that wonder what Obama had done over this term should chick this.

LBC 2012 Day 4 – Latino Blog I recommend: @TheJadedNYer

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

I don’t recommend blogs often and I know that I should probably get into the habit of that. I do have a long list of blogs on the left side of your screen that I already recommend, but I do feel that this blog is one of the few that really stand out.

There are very few people who keep it real in the blogging diaspora. There also very few who can write in such away that you can hear their voice (I ‘ve never heard her actual voice so I just imagine what it would sound like). I will also say that written sarcasm is hard to master, but The Jaded NYer does it very well.

I am not just saying all this because she is a Mets fan (but it helped her cause), I think that Raquel has stepped up her game this year. She has a brand new website, which is awesome. Her web persona with her blog, twitter, and website is something that I admire because I want to do something similar. She has a book that I promised her I would buy (I am getting there) and knowing her writing style, I am quite sure it will be a very good read.

I would also encourage you to read her first published story: Grey Matter.

I consider her blog to be the consummate New York City journey as told through the lense of a Latina. I feel that she is on the cusp of something great and I cannot wait to read her adventures. As always, please take time to look through her writings and support her.

LBC 2012 Day 3 – Rice and Beans, Favorite Cuisine

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

It is no secret that I love rice and beans. I grew up with it and its something that I will eat until I am told by a doctor that I need to stop. I do know that this is a very starchy staple to my diet but, the thing is, I’m just not that meat and potatoes type of guy. I cannot imagine not eat rice and beans.

With that being said, my favorite cuisine has got to be Caribbean. To be even more specific, Puerto Rican and Dominican. The two cooking styles are very similar with few differences. I know that I can go to either type of restaurant and eat something that I am craving. Of course, much of that has to do with the aforementioned… Rice and Beans.

I suppose I never really tasted that many different cuisines. I have had Mexican, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Columbian which have different dishes that are awesome. I have also been fortunate enough to have each of these cuisines made from home (not my home…but people who I know).

That is not to say I am not going to crave ceviche from Ecuador or Peru. Most of the authentic foods have a taste and a flavor that are unforgettable. I just consider my favorite cuisine to be a piece of home. That is the one thing that I missed when I lived in Syracuse for the first few years. There was never a place that served my type of food until Las Delicias opened.

Now that I am back in NYC, I am looking forward to expand my palette a little but I have a good feeling I will always prefer the food I grew up with…

LBC 2012 Day 2 – Dominican Republic! (Latin American Island I been to)

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

It has been a while since I have traveled anywhere and my last trip was the Dominican Republic and I have to say, I miss it. The last time I was there was because of a wedding and it was one of the best trips I have taken as an adult.

The city I went to was La Romana and while it was resort that I stayed at, I will never forget how beautiful it’s beaches were. I fondly remember how green the trees were and how the island just radiated with a sense of culture and passion that you just do not see this side of Washington Heights.

With all the beauty that I did see, I am also not absent to reality of the other things that I didn’t see. Clearly, being in a resort makes my views a little biased because that means I did not get to see where the real people live. On the bus ride from the airport to the resort (45 minutes), I did see the real streets of DR and they reminded me of Puerto Rico.

Despite that numerous ads of tourism, we should never forget that the real people that live in these places are trying to survive, which makes me wonder about the numerous amounts of staff that I met. Were they truly happy to work there? While I am not entirely sure about that, what I am sure about is the people that I do meet from the Dominican Republic here in New York. There is a love of that place that is hard to match.

I am glad that I saw why it is they love that place. It is very beautiful and I cannot wait to return.

LBC 2012 Day 1 – What I love most about being Latino in America.

(Let me preface this whole challenge by saying that I know that I am late….but this is me catching up)

Being Latino in America is not easy these days. It is not just a social identity, it is also a political one. It seems that everyone wants to know how we are going to vote, but there will enough time for that in a later post. What I love the most about being Latino in this country is that we are all so different and yet we can all identify with the many of the same things regardless of country of origin.

There is a sense of community that is hard to describe. While not everything is perfect considering the treatment Afro Latinos, the sense of culture is all the same. I enjoy learning about history of Latin America because I find that each country is unique and yet there is a sense of connection when it comes to the indigenous populations and the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade.

It is that history that connects all of us as citizens of the United States. There are so many of us now that we can effectively elect a president. However, there is still so much to do in terms of immigration reform, which seems to effect us more than any other group that comes to this country looking for citizenship.

Lastly, it is that sense of connection that has allowed me to have such a great connection with the students at Syracuse University. Despite our numbers, there are still not many Latinos in the field of Higher Education which made me stand out and allow for me to help many of them through their college careers.

The 30 Day Latino Blog Challenge 2012

As you know amongst my many adventures, I helped form the Afro Latino Justice League called The Latingr@s Project. Recently we decided to reintroduce this event that I created a few years ago. I think enough time has passed to start a new.

We are happy to bring back The 30 Day Latino Blog Challenge. 30 days, 30 blogs, 1 message to celebrate Latino Heritage Month. We challenge oursleves and any Latino blogger to write everyday for the next 30 days. The rules are simple. The blog must be at least 2 paragraphs on the selected topic, although there are 2 entries for poetry. The blog can be written in anyway chosen.

Latino/Hispanic Heritage Month is from September 15 – October 15. So this challenge will begin tomorrow. Have FUN and Good Luck! Below are the topics:

Day 1 – What I love most about being Latino in America.
Day 2 – What Latin American Country/Island have I been to
Day 3 – Favorite Latin Cuisine
Day 4 – What Latino Blog I recommend
Day 5 – Romney or Obama?
Day 6 – Immigration: For or Against?
Day 7 –  Post a picture about your culture and explain its significance
Day 8 –  What Latino Stereotype do I hate the most
Day 9 –  My Feelings on Arizona
Day  10 – Afro Latinos/Latinas in the Media

Day 11 – Religion
Day 12 – Latino Politics – What affects you?
Day 13 – What Do I know about indigenous culture (i.e.Tainos)
Day 14 – Favorite Latino Musician
Day 15 – Latinos in the Film Industry
Day 16 – Latino Art
Day 17 – Si No Puede Hablar Español, No Se Pone Latino.  Verdad?
Day 18 – A Poem (original or quoted)
Day 19 – Latinos, Police, and Prisons. What Say You/Que Te Dices?
Day 20 – Latino Superheros

Day 21 – Post an Image that Represents (Afro)Latinidad and explain why
Day 22 – Blogueros y Blogeras – Are Latinos on the ‘Nets Relevant?
Day 23 – Hispanic or Latino..What do you prefer?
Day 24 – Should USA lift the embargo on Cuba?
Day 25 – Post a picture about your familia and explain its significance
Day 26 – Favorite Latino Actor or Actress
Day 27 – Favorite Latino Author
Day 28 – Are Latinos Queer?
Day 29 – Are Latinos Black?
Day 30 – What I learned in the last 30 days..